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Note: The information in this archived copy was accurate on the date of publication. Since then, Web sites have appeared and disappeared, companies have been merged and many other facts have changed. You may find references in this archived copy that are no longer accurate.

EOGN: Eastman's Online Genealogy Newsletter

A Weekly Summary of Events and
Topics of Interest to Online Genealogists

Vol. 5 No. 34 Ė August 19, 2000

This newsletter was sponsored by,
a leader in providing print and electronic
research information to genealogists.

To learn about Ancestry.comís
state-of-the-art online genealogy databases
and other fine products,
visit the companyís three Internet properties,,, and

Past issues of this Newsletter
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Copyright © 2000 by Richard W. Eastman. All rights reserved.

If you do contact any of the companies or societies mentioned in this newsletter, please tell them that you read about their services in this newsletter.


- to Place U.S. Census Images Online
- The Master Genealogist Version 4.0a is Released
- Genealogy Database Helps Identify 1st Alzheimer's Gene
- BCG Genealogical Standards Manual
- The Genealogistís Virtual Library
- Archaic Medical Terms
- Evolution of United States County Boundaries
- DNA Analysis at FGS Conference
- Brief History of Social Security
- Find All Your Ancestors Online!
- Home Pages Highlighted

- to Place U.S. Census Images Online

The dream of many genealogists is about to come true: we will soon be able to view original hand-written census records on our PC screens while seated comfortably at home. In this case, it will be all of the U.S. census records that have been released by the government, including the years 1790 through 1920. Once completed, this online database will contain more than 450 million names., the sponsors of this newsletter, released the following announcement:


Images Online(tm) Enables Members to View and Print Images of Census Records Instantly, part of, Inc., the leading online family network, today announced the launch of an immense project to create digitized images of every record from the U.S. Federal Census between the years 1790 and 1920. Beginning today, sample images from census records have been posted to the site, enabling users to preview the types of information contained on these original documents. These census records, which recently obtained from the National Archives, contain more than 450 million names.

"The ability to view census records online is one of the most significant advancements in online genealogy to date," said Curt Witcher, manager of the Historical Genealogy Department of the Allen County Public Library. "Viewing original documents online not only saves people time and money by enabling them to view census records in their own living room, but original documents contain a wealth of information and may help researchers go beyond what they can find in an index."

Once these images are launched as part of the new Images Online(tm) service, the original census records will be viewable and printable online with an Census Subscription. Through Images Online(tm), these census records will more faithfully reproduce original documents than mere indexes or bi-tonal, black and white images available with competitive offerings. The first images will be posted this fall, and subsequent postings will bring hundreds of millions of images to the site throughout the year. With the addition of these new census records, more than 1 billion records will be fully searchable on by the end of this year.

"By offering images of these census schedules, is taking online genealogy to the next level," said Andre Brummer, general manager of "Census records are one of the most significant sources of family history information. Making original documents available online enables people to view and print documents that have traditionally been stored on microfilm and are only available in limited numbers of archives and libraries throughout the nation."

In addition to the 450 million new records, recently began an innovative project to reconstruct the vast amount of information lost when a 1921 fire destroyed nearly the entire 1890 census. The census substitute is the largest project of its kind and will fill the void that was created when the fire destroyed insight into an entire generation's family demographics, occupations, and much more. is using remaining fragments of the original 1890 census, 1890 special veterans schedules, several Indian tribe censuses for years surrounding 1890, state censuses (1885 or 1895), city and county directories, alumni directories, and voter registration documents to construct a census substitute. More than 20 million records have been identified for inclusion in the census substitute.

You can view sample census images online at:

The 1890 Census Reconstruction Project is at:

This obviously will be a huge boon for genealogists. SierraHome's Generations brand and Heritage Quest made a similar announcement a few weeks ago. They said that they would offer the entire U.S. census online "sometime this fall." (See my July 8, 2000 newsletter for details.) The new announcement says that "The first images will be posted this fall, and subsequent postings will bring hundreds of millions of images to the site throughout the year." In other words, the two companies will be releasing the first documents about the same time.

Does this sound like a race? You bet. And genealogists will benefit.

Both companies will be enhancing the original images to improve readability. The online images should be easier to read than many of the microfilmed copies. The Web site says that the Images Online census records will more faithfully reproduce original documents than mere indexes or bi-tonal, black and white images available with competitive offerings. The records will be easier to read since they will be viewed in full 256 shades of gray. SierraHome also has a lengthy description of their digital enhancements of the original handwritten records on their Web site at already has some sample images on their Web site today from the 1790, 1860, 1870 and 1900 U.S. censuses. I took a look at these samples and indeed they are easy to read. The images are first displayed in a Java Applet viewer. I was able to look at the images in a standard Internet Explorer or Netscape browser. However, you can add a lot more functionality if you download and install the free MrSID plug-in for your browser. Full instructions are on the Ancestry Web page.

With the MrSID plug-in installed, I was able to make the displayed image larger or smaller, zoom in and out, and save to a file or print on local printer. I found that I could zoom in to the point where only a few names filled most of the computer screen. I could look at the individual strokes of the enumeratorís (census takerís) handwriting. Every single example that I looked at could be decoded, even those made with mediocre handwriting.

I also saved one image to a disk file and then later imported it into Microsoft Word. The whole thing was simple. This brought the entire census page into Word. If I write a book or even an article about a particular ancestor, I probably would only want to import a part of a page: those lines that list the ancestor, his or her family, their property and possibly a few other lines showing their neighbors. To do that, I would first use a paintbrush program of some sort to cut out only the part I want to use and save it to disk. I can later import only that snippet into my genealogy document.

You can view sample census images online at:

The Year 2000 looks like a great one for anyone researching U.S. ancestry. This is the year in which U.S. census records become available online for all.

- The Master Genealogist Version 4.0a is Released

One of the leading genealogy programs available today has been updated. The following is an announcement from Wholly Genes Software:

The Master Genealogist v4.0a

Wholly Genes Software is proud to announce the release of TMG v4.0a. This free update was originally scheduled for release earlier this year but was postponed at the last minute in order to respond to the many suggestions from users of Ultimate Family Tree(tm) following the sudden announcement of the discontinuation of that program by

As originally announced, TMG v4.0a includes more explicit control over roles, user-defined place fields, source citations embedded in memos, multi-part citation details, short place names, and the ability to record comments and life-spans of places. In recent weeks, the list of enhancements has grown to fill 10 full pages and includes many new customization features, sentence variables, source construction tools, enhanced multi-lingual features, and optional warnings during data entry about inconsistent data.

Users importing directly from Ultimate Family Tree(tm) will find enhanced support for freeform notes, structured sources, and many other data types as well as powerful new features with which the import process can be customized to match the user's particular data entry strategy. The result is by far the most complete and accurate means by which UFT users can transfer and preserve their data.

A comprehensive chart has also been prepared to describe how TMG's exclusive import engine, GenBridge(tm), deals with each type of data from UFT. The chart also itemizes more than 200 types of data that are preserved by TMG but would be lost when transferring from UFT to any other program using GEDCOM 5.5.

Registered users of TMG v4.0 can download the free v4.0a upgrade from

For a limited time, UFT users can still receive 50% off TMG v4.0a. See for details. All advance orders under this competitive upgrade offer are expected to be shipped by Monday, 21 August 2000.

The Master Genealogist is a trademark of Wholly Genes, Inc.
Ultimate Family Tree is a trademark of

- Genealogy Database Helps Identify 1st Alzheimer's Gene

I have written several times (January 15, 2000; March 11, 2000 and April 15, 2000 about Decode Genetics, a company based in Iceland. In the January 15 newsletter, I wrote, "Iceland may be a small nation, but it will become the first with a comprehensive national genealogy database. Three years ago, an Icelandic company called Decode Genetics was formed to promote medical research by the use of computer databases. The company has been combining information from medical records to the genealogical relationship between patients with various diseases in an attempt to link certain diseases to genes."

Decode Genetics claims to be nearing completion of a computerized genealogy database covering the entire Icelandic population, with some genealogical records dating back to the settlement of the country in the ninth century. The company believes the relative genetic homogeneity of the population gives it a unique competitive advantage in the business of genotyping. Now Decode Genetics has used that database to identify a gene that contributes to the common form of Alzheimer's disease.

The Decode Genetics announcement is the first publicized instance of gene-typing since the mapping of the human genome was completed in June. However, the Decode Genetics research is unrelated to the Human Genome Project. Nevertheless, this weekís announcement highlights the increased pace at which scientists are working to identify disease-related genes now that man's genetic make-up has been systematically sequenced.

"It's one piece of the mosaic," said Andreas Burckhardt, investment analyst for the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sector at West LB in Duesseldorf. "It's an important discovery, but they haven't discovered Alzheimer's."

Klaus Lindpaintner, director of Roche Genetics, said it is likely to take up to three years to identify the other genes associated with the common form of Alzheimer's and develop the related diagnostic tools. Developing a medicine could take a total five to 10 years, according to Lindpaintner.

Further details are available at:

- BCG Genealogical Standards Manual

The Board for Certification of Genealogists (BCG) is an organization dedicated to promoting uniform standards of competence and ethics among amateur and professional genealogists. As its name implies, the BCG conducts several rigorous examinations of applicants. Those that pass appropriate examinations and agree to abide by a rigid code of ethics are then authorized to append certain titles after their names, such as:

  • Certified Genealogist (CG)
  • Certified Genealogical Record Specialist (CGRS)
  • Certified American Indian Lineage Specialist (CAILS)
  • Certified American Lineage Specialist (CALS)
  • Certified Genealogical Instructor (CGI)
  • Certified Genealogical Lecturer (CGL)

As you might expect, an organization dedicated to standards of competence in genealogy will publish those standards. This week I had a chance to read the brand-new "BCG Genealogical Standards Manual." This manual is not just for professional genealogists; it is written for everyone. Even if you do not yet write genealogies, this manual shows what you should be reading. If a published genealogy you read does not meet the BCG standards, you might want to be wary of its accuracy. If you hire someone else to research distant records for you, then you want to make sure that the person hired follows these standards. Ideally, that person should be certified and be willing to include a photocopy of his or her certificate along with the information you pay for.

Here is the Table of Contents from this new BCG Genealogical Standards Manual:

      • When Standards Apply
      • The Genealogical Proof Standard
      • Data-Collection Standards
      • Evidence-Evaluation Standards
      • Compilation Standards
      • Standards for Lecturers
      • Standards for Instructors
      • Standards for Educational Writers
      • Continuing Education Standards
      • The Genealogist's Code
      • The Board for Certification of Genealogists
      • Example Reports
      • Example Proof Summaries
      • Example Compiled Lineages
      • Example Compiled Pedigrees
      • Example Compiled Genealogies
    • INDEX

The first few sections are rather slim and simply state the various standards. However, the various appendixes are thick and full of excellent examples of the proper methods of creating reports. The examples of reports, summaries, lineages, pedigrees and compiled genealogies cover 86 pages, each page showing proper methodologies with citations, formatting, numbering systems and typographic styles. In short, this is the way to publish genealogy information.

Anyone who wants to become a certified genealogist will need to read this book. Every other genealogist should read this book to see "how the pros do it." Every genealogy software developer should read this book to see how printed reports are to be created. I would also suggest that every beginning genealogist should read this manual to see "how to do it the right way." I wish I had read a book like this when I first started researching my family tree!

The Board for Certification of Genealogists Genealogical Standards Manual sells for $19.95 plus shipping. You can order it online at:

For more information about the Board for Certification of Genealogists, look at:

- The Genealogistís Virtual Library

We all know that the Internet has changed many facets of modern life. Newspapers, financial information, sports reports, weather forecasts and much more are now available quickly and more conveniently than the old-fashioned printed newspapers. Encyclopedias are now offered almost exclusively online or on CD-ROM as printed encyclopedias are almost obsolete. We all have read predictions that book publishing online will someday overtake publishing on paper. I monitor the Internet rather closely, especially as it relates to genealogy; yet, I was amazed when I read a book this week that lists thousands of books already online, books of interest to genealogists.

"The Genealogistís Virtual Library" by Thomas Jay Kemp is a 268-page paperback that lists thousands of full-text books available on the Web. These sites contain complete texts of books, not just synopses or listings. Kempís publication is a "Books in Print" of full-text genealogy books on the Internet.

As always, I decided to look for anything concerning my own surname. After all, I am always looking for references to the name, and I think I know what is available online. I was amazed to find a reference on page 24 that I had never heard of previously. I went to the URL listed and was soon engrossed in "Seven And Nine Years Among The Camanches And Apaches" by Edwin Eastman, a rather distant relative on the outer fringes of my family tree. I spent quite some time reading about his travels by wagon train in Indian country and his capture and torture by Indians. He even briefly mentioned his ancestry, although not in detail. You never know what you will find on the Internet!

The book that I found is but one of the many thousands listed. "The Genealogistís Virtual Library" lists one or two sentence descriptions of books and then follows with the full URL (online address). Topics covered include:

  • Family histories

  • Local histories by U.S. states

  • Local histories by country

  • African-Americans

  • Baptists

  • Census records

  • City directories

  • Court records

  • Episcopalians

  • Huguenots

  • Jewish Americans

  • Maps and gazetteers

  • Methodists

  • Military records

  • Civil War

  • Native Americans

  • Naturalization records

  • Newspapers

  • Presbyterians

  • Quakers

  • Roman Catholics

  • And a lot moreÖ

The book also contains a CD-ROM that supplies links to all the electronic books listed. Thatís a good idea as many of these links are quite lengthy and are not easily typed by hand.

"The Genealogistís Virtual Library" is an excellent reference book that belongs on the shelf of every genealogy library. It costs $27.95 plus shipping. For more information, go to:

The same site allows you to order the book online. However, the order form is not secure, so I would strongly suggest that you not enter your credit card number there. Instead, you can order by telephone at (888) 772-7817 or (302) 654-7713.

- Archaic Medical Terms

Family records and death certificates say that great-aunt Millie suffered from "green fever" while great-great-uncle Bert died of "natural decay." What are those diseases? Are they really exotic medical conditions of yesterday? Or are they old names for something that we know today? A Web site will tell you.

Paul Smith, a British doctor, has created a Web site that explains many of the medical terms found in genealogy research, including:

  • Trench fever, ship fever or jail fever: all names for typhus, based on where people tended to catch it -- crowded and dirty places where body lice thrive
  • Marsh fever and jungle fever: terms for malaria, which is transmitted via mosquito bites
  • Grocer's itch: a skin complaint caused by mites in flour and sugar
  • Whiteblood: leukemia
  • Green fever: anemia
  • Suffocative breast pang: angina
  • Ablepsia, ablepsy and abopsia: blindness
  • Grog blossoms: pimples on the nose
  • Scrivener's palsy: writer's cramp (It seems that repetitive stress injury has been around for a while.)
  • Milk leg: deep vein thrombosis in the thigh, seen after childbirth. Doctors used to think it was caused by milk being misdirected down the leg.
  • Phossy jaw: a nasty disease that people working in match factories were prone to get. The phosphorus in the matches ate away at their jawbones.
  • General paralysis of the insane: syphilis of the brain. Smith says he receives more inquiries about this term from genealogists than any other on his list.

Oh yes, great-great-uncle Bertís death by "natural decay?" That term really means "old age."

To look at the Archaic Medical Terms Web site, go to:

- Evolution of United States County Boundaries

It seems like my ancestors didnít move around too much, but the county lines where they lived kept moving. I have an ancestor who lived in three different counties, even though he never moved! Instead, the county lines were twice redrawn. Of course, this is critical for finding records; I need to look in the records of the county where he lived at the time, not where the location is today. Dover-Foxcroft may be in Piscataquis County today, but his purchase of the family farm was recorded in Penobscot County Deeds as the land was part of Penobscot County when he purchased it.

Ed Stephan of Bellingham, Washington has created a Web site that will simplify the searches for many genealogists. Quoting from Edís Web site:

When I was working on my doctorate, in the late 'sixties, I was investigating variation in the size of United States counties. At that time there was little information about the formation of U.S. counties, and I was assured by the Geography Division of the U.S. Census Bureau that very little would ever be found (e.g., there were no nationwide county maps prior to the 1930s).

Since then much work has been done in this area. My own research, which has taken me way beyond my early interest in county size, is available on this website in the form of a free, on-line book: The Division of Territory in Society.

Ed also has created a large animated GIF image that shows the formation of counties across the entire United States. It shows all county boundaries for 1650, 1700, 1750, and census years from 1790 onward. Because of its size, it can take a while to load. Once cached, however, clicking "reload" will give you quite a show.

Take a look at and the GIF image at:

My thanks to Gregg Asher for telling me about the Evolution of United States County Boundaries Web site.

- DNA Analysis at FGS Conference

In the April 15 edition of this newsletter, I wrote about the work of Dr. Scott Woodward of the BYU Microbiology Department. Dr. Woodward previously analyzed Egyptian mummy families by DNA analysis and even matching up Dead Sea Scroll fragments by DNA analysis of the parchment to see what pieces came from the same animal. Now he is involved with a major study of genealogy and DNA. Dr. Woodward is collecting blood samples and 4-generation pedigree charts of thousands of people to see what the DNA markers are for families and groups.

According to an insert sent with registrations for next monthís Federation of Genealogical Societies conference in Salt Lake City, Dr. Woodward will be at the conference collecting blood samples and four-generation pedigree charts. If you are going to the conference, bring your pedigree charts!

Information on the conference is available at Information about Dr. Woodwardís work is available at:,1249,195006815,00.html

- Brief History of Social Security

This week the United States Social Security Administration released an online booklet that describes the early years of the government agency. While not written for genealogists, it does provide useful background information for understanding our ancestors' involvement with the program. For example, did you know that Social Security cards were initially issued by the Postal Service?

The entire booklet is available online at no cost. It is a large Adobe Acrobat PDF file at:

My thanks to Chad R. Milliner for telling me about this new booklet.

- Find All Your Ancestors Online!

A person who apparently is a newcomer to genealogy research posted a message this week on a British mailing list challenging why anyone would spend time looking for genealogy information in books and in dusty old records offices. Roy Stockdill responded with what I think will become a classic answer. Roy kindly has given permission for it to be republished here:

Dear All

Welcome to my super-fast instant ancestry programme! I am proud to announce the launch of an exciting new service for wannabe family historians who find research the old-fashioned way rather boring. You, too, can have a family tree back to Adam and Eve ENTIRELY from the Internet!!! Here is an amazing, once-in-a-lifetime, never-to-be repeated offer.....

SEND me 10,000 dollars, your date of birth, your chest and inside leg measurements, the location of the pub where your granny met your granddad and the name of that milkman with the hairy nose that your Auntie Maude had the wild affair with - and I guarantee I will have your family tree at least back to Nebuchadnezzar the Daft of Outer Mongolia in the 3rd century BC before you can say "IGI" !!!

NO more listening to boring old farts droning on about how you need to read a book on family history. Books - outdated, who needs 'em?

NO more need to visit dreary old Record Offices or waste your precious time looking at boring bits of paper covered in squiggly writing that you can't understand anyway.

NO more need to listen to self-appointed, so-called experts who try to tell you they can help you just because they've been in genealogy since March 1897 and who will try and persuade you to join a family history society where you will meet hordes of equally boring people who also think they know it all.

I absolutely guarantee you a family tree you can be proud of, that will show your descent from such famous historical figures as Mary Queen of Scots, Oliver Cromwell, Sir Francis Drake, William the Conqueror, Charlemagne, the Norse god Woden, Charles II's head coachman's illegitimate son, a 4th cousin twice removed of Henry VIII, Cyril the Incontinent of Babylon, Frederick the Flatulent of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Baron Frankenstein, Joan Collins and the Man in the Off-Licence Round the Corner.

How do I do it? Simple - I log onto the Internet, spend half an hour or so trawling the world wide web and - bingo! - there is your Instant Family Tree! Here's how it works...

First, I find the marriage of your great-granny on the IGI, then I find someone of the same name who was born in a parish 100 miles away from where she was married, so that's bound to be her, isn't it? Then I ring up this mate of mine who specialises in doing look-ups from the 1861 census [which hasn't been indexed] in places like London, Leeds, Sheffield, Bristol, Manchester and Glasgow. He sticks a pin in anywhere on the census and gives me a couple more names to work with. I reckon they have as much chance of being your gt-gt-grandparents as anyone else, so it's back to the Net. I feed the names into umpteen databases and websites until I come up with someone of the same name who claims to be descended from Edward III. Ah, yes, this looks as good a bet as any. Nobody is going to notice if I casually slip your gt-gt-grandad and granny into a GEDCOM that shows they were also descended from Alfred the Great and the monk who did the slopping-out at Whitby Abbey, are they?

So there you have it - a wonderful, Instant Family Tree, and all from the Internet. And what I don't find I simply MAKE UP!!! What could be easier? Apply now for the bargain of all time and discover how to make Internet genealogy really work for you!

Roy Stockdill
Editor, The Journal of One-Name Studies
The Stockdill Family History Society (Guild of One-Name Studies, FedFHS)
MEAD YOUNG in Somerset, Wiltshire & Gloucestershire
Web page of the Stockdill Family History Society:

"Never ask a man if he comes from Yorkshire. If he does he will tell you. If he does not, why humiliate him?" - Canon Sydney Smith (scholar and humorist 1771-1845)

- Home Pages Highlighted

The following is a list of some of the genealogy-related World Wide Web home pages that have been listed recently on

Headstone inscriptions contained in the Whitehaven and Preston quarter cemetery in Whitehaven Cumbria (Cumberland):

The "Adams, New York" page is for those who are interested in history and genealogy in this small Jefferson County area. Visitors will find yearbook transcriptions, histories of businesses, land and deed records, and numerous pictures of the area:

The Council of Irish Genealogical Organisations (CIGO), an umbrella group for the various organizations having an interest in Irish genealogical research:

Steen family home page, a single resource for genealogical information about anyone with the surname STEEN:

CPROOTS Genealogy Resources, a free site with 23 searchable databases:

Orzell Genealogy of Connecticut, Vermont and more:

History of the Fisher family of Brockton, Massachusetts:

GeneaNet is a search engine which indexes all the genealogical databases in the world so that all those people who are looking for their ancestors can take advantage of them. With 12 million indexes (35 million individuals), and thanks to its search possibilities using surnames, places or dates, GeneaNet is a unique site:

1st Choice Genealogy Ecards, the first and only genealogy-specific Ecard site on the Internet. Ecards are a novel way to keep your surnames out front, to send an initial query, follow up, say "hello" to family & friends, or to simply "thank" someone for their time and any assistance they may have provided to you:

The family of James Townsend and Elizabeth Davis, who immigrated to Prince Edward Island in 1775 from Berkshire, England:

Ancestral Pages Ė dedicated to the promotion and encouragement of Irish genealogy:

Waldensian ancestors in the Piedmont area of modern day Italy. The purpose of the site is to provide research instruction and help with finding your ancestors, many of whom were forced to leave the area at the end of the 1600s because of their Protestant religious beliefs. At that time the Piedmont valleys were a part of French speaking Savoy:

County Heritage, Inc., publisher of dozens of Southeastern US County Heritage Books:

Scanned images from the 1875 Atlas of Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. Images include townships, towns and buildings of the time period. These maps contain surnames of residents and locations of their domiciles:

To submit your home page to this newsletter, enter the necessary information at: Due to the volume of new Web pages submitted, I am not able to list all of them in the newsletter.

Are you interested in the articles in this newsletter? Would you like to learn more or ask questions or make comments about these articles? Join this newsletterís online discussion group on CompuServeís Genealogy Techniques Forum. CompuServe members using Netscape, Internet Explorer or CompuServe 2000 can go to If you are using Classic CompuServe, you can GO ROOTS.

If you would like to submit news, information or press releases for possible inclusion in future newsletters, send them to The author does reserve the right to accept or reject any articles submitted.

DISCLAIMER: This newsletter is being written and sent via e-mail at no charge. I expect to write one new issue on a more or less weekly basis. However, life sometimes interferes, and the need to earn a living may create an occasional delay.

COPYRIGHTS: The contents of this newsletter are copyright by Richard W. Eastman with the following exception:

Many of the articles published in these newsletters contain quotes or references from others, especially from other Web sites, software users manuals, press releases and other public announcements. Any words in this newsletter attributed to another person or organization remain the copyrighted materials of the original author(s).

You are hereby granted rights, unless otherwise specified, to re-distribute articles from this newsletter to other parties provided:

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  3. You may not republish any articles containing words attributed to another person or organization until you obtain permission from that person or organization. While you do have permission to republish words written by Richard W. Eastman, you do not have automatic authority to republish words written by others, even if their words appear in this newsletter.

Also, please include the following statement with any articles you re-distribute:

The following article is from Eastmanís Online Genealogy Newsletter and is copyright 2000 by Richard W. Eastman. It is re-published here with the permission of the author.

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About the author: Dick Eastman is the forum manager of the three Genealogy Forums on CompuServe. He also is the author of "YOUR ROOTS: Total Genealogy Planning On Your Computer" published by Ziff-Davis Press. He can be reached at: