EOGN:

Eastman's Online Genealogy Newsletter

Standard Edition

A Weekly Summary of Events and Topics of Interest to Online Genealogists

Vol. 8 No. 43 – October 27, 2003

This newsletter relies solely upon "word of mouse" advertising. If you enjoy reading these articles, please tell others to go to http://www.eogn.com.

Some of the articles in this Plus Edition newsletter are restricted to your personal use.

Search previous issues of Standard Edition newsletters at: http://www.eogn.com/search.

Plus Edition subscribers may gain access to a reserved section of the Discussion Board. Details are available at http://www.eogn.com/plus/messageboard.

Copyright© 2003 by Richard W. Eastman. All rights reserved.


IN THIS ISSUE:

- Family Tree Legends Version 2.0
- (+) Preserving Old Documents Electronically
- (+) Free Program to Manage Photos on Your Website
- (+) Low-Cost Replacement for Microsoft Office 2003
- The Rolfe Papers on CD
- Amazon's Search Inside the Book
- A Great Genealogy Page
- Scottish Wills Online
- What Is "Second Cousin Once Removed?"
- The Boston Post Road
- Tombstones That Look Like Logs
- How to Read Past Newsletters
- The Perfect Space Storm of 1859
- Suitable Attire for the Genealogist
- Future Photo Album

Items marked with a Plus Sign (+) appear only in the Plus Edition newsletter.


- Family Tree Legends Version 2.0

Family Tree Legends is a very impressive genealogy program for Windows. I wrote about its super easy-to-use features nearly a year ago in the November 1, 2002 newsletter. You can read that article at http://www.eogn.com/archives/news0245.htm.

Pearl Street Software, the producer of Family Tree Legends, constantly makes minor upgrades to the program, all of which can be downloaded and installed automatically by registered users at any time they are online. In this manner, a Family Tree Legends user always has the latest version of the program.

Within the last few days, a major new update has appeared: version 2.0. I had an opportunity to use this new release and must say that it is impressive.

First, to list some of the things that made the previous version "stand out" from other genealogy programs:

This program is aimed at all levels of genealogists. Beginners will find Family Tree Legend’s user interface and liberal use of icons results in one of the easiest to use genealogy programs I have seen. You can see that in the screen shots at http://www.familytreelegends.com/products/tour/main/1. Yet this program has a lot of power "under the hood" to meet the expectations of seasoned genealogists. It records full source citations, allows for contradictory data, and more.

Other genealogy programs may create automated backups, but I have not seen any that do it as well as Family Tree Legends. This program optionally writes a backup file, record-by-record, to a private area of the Family Tree Legends Web server. There is no need to do a GEDCOM export or a separate backup at the end of the session. If connected online while using the program, minute-by-minute backups of this transactional file system ensure that a scrambled database can be restored to its condition of just a few minutes before the problem occurred. If not connected online, the backup is stored on the local hard drive, and the user may optionally save it to the Web server on a subsequent connection to the Internet. All data is encrypted with a 128-bit encryption key before being saved. Your personal data is not visible to anyone else unless you specify otherwise.

Data transferred to Pearl Street Software’s servers may be displayed as Web pages, if desired. In other words, you can publish your data on the Web automatically. You don’t even need to upload a separate copy since the data was already transferred during that data entry process. Pearl Street Software’s servers can use your backup data to create Web pages for you. Here again, the publishing of data on the Web is optional. The user can specify to never publish the data. Should he or she decide to publish, the user also can specify several different levels of privatization: show data about living individuals or not, show names but not places or dates, etc.

Another feature of Family Tree Legends is WebFacts – data pieces that can be searched online. For instance, if you find a new record that specifies a town that you have never heard of, you can right-click on the town’s name, and a pop-up menu will appear. This menu allows the user to search for information on the Web about that place. The information obtained typically includes the geographical coordination, elevation, aerial photos, road maps, and more. It will also find surrounding locations, such as courthouses in adjacent towns or counties.

The best part of Family Tree Legends, however, may be its SmartMatching technology. The program compares data in its local database with that stored on GenCircles.com, a major online genealogy database. Family Tree Legends seems to do a better job of finding people than most of the other online databases. It really shines when searching for common surnames. Other online databases search for names, and most of them will also try to identify the years. However, it is common to search online for John Smith in Arkansas in 1840 and then find men of the same name 40 or 50 years later in Oregon, Alaska, or Massachusetts. Sure, they might be the same person, but how do you pick out the right one from the hundreds of records displayed on the screen?

SmartMatching does not display hundreds of hits for one person. Instead, it shows one occurrence of the name and then has links to sources of the information. These links are sorted in a manner defined by supporting evidence in other records. Family Tree Legends "votes" on matching records. First, it finds matching bits of information in other records. It may find a name and birth date in your database and then look for matching records. Some of those records may have the same name and birth date as well as a death date that you do not know. It is assumed that these new records match. Then these newly-found records are compared against the entire database. Now, perhaps a person with the same name and the same death date is found in still more records that also show the names of parents. Again, this data is a match even though it contains still more data not found in your database. This is a form of intelligent linking. The search algorithms also handle conflicting data by two methods: (1.) by voting to see if there are additional records that corroborate the data, and (2.) by showing both to the user for his or her decision.

When I used SmartMatching for the first time, I was very impressed with its accuracy. When I clicked on an icon, Family Tree Legends automatically sent my data of about 3,000 people to the Web server and then advised me to check back in a few hours. When I did so, I found that the software had returned several hundred matches. In many cases, the newly delivered information included data about parents, spouses, and siblings. I scanned through the list and could not find one single entry that was NOT an ancestor of mine! In my case, it was 100% accurate. Every single person listed is, indeed, an ancestor of mine. I have never seen that degree of accuracy on any other online data matching service that I have ever used. Each listing gave details and, in some cases, might have contained new information that I did not have previously. The company owners assured me that this is a typical experience. They say that they have seen a handful of mismatches, but the mismatches are rare. I have never seen any other online name-matching database with this degree of accuracy.

Under the user’s control, newly discovered data in the Family Tree Legends/GenCircles Web server database may be automatically imported into the local Family Tree Legends database stored on the user’s hard drive. In the case of conflicting data, the user may choose to ignore the new data, replace the old data with the new data, or else add the new data as a secondary record that is subservient to the older data. That last option is a good method of recording "possibilities" that need further investigation.

Version 2.0, of course, keeps all the above features and adds a number of new items. The SmartMatching interface has been completely re-written. As good as it was before, the new version is even easier to use. This time, to make the searches, all I did was click on the "SmartMatches" icon; a SmartMatching window then appeared. In the top half of the window, a list of names in my local database is displayed. As I clicked on the names, probable matches from the GenCircles online database appeared on the screen, showing name, date and place of birth, date and place of death, and the name of the file on GenCircles.com from which this data was obtained.

I found that I could click on any of the entries to see a side-by-side comparison of my local database’s entry for this individual with that found on GenCircles.com. All the details were shown, including names of parents, spouse(s) and occupation, if the information is available.

Now for the best part: with a single click of the mouse, I found that I could either immediately merge all the data from GenCircle.com’s displayed record into my local record of that individual, or else I could go through a step-by-step merge. The step-by-step merge takes the user through each piece of data, one at a time, and prompts the user whether or not to copy each fact to the local database. I certainly recommend you use the second option, reviewing each piece of information before adding it to your primary database.

The merge process also contains several options for merging source citations. I would suggest that you select the option to copy all source citations from the GenCircles.com database that also adds the words "via GenCircles" to each of those citations. That makes it easy to later identify and verify those citations. (I never believe anyone else’s citations; I always want to verify them for myself.)

Version 2.0 of Family Tree Legends has added a number of new features. In my review last year, I mentioned that the program didn’t yet have as many printed reports as most of its established competitors. I was delighted to find lots of new reports available in version 2.0. For instance, it now produces a full descendants report that is loosely based on Register report format. I also liked the "Individual Timeline" report, showing significant events in the life of an individual. For instance:

TimeLine for Washington Harvey Eastman

1810 April 3 Birth in Maine
1811 April Birth of wife Sarah Nichols
1831 May 22 Marriage to Cynthia Tyler
1833 Dec. 8 Birth of daughter Elizabeth Eastman
1835 July 26 Birth of daughter Maria Eastman
1838 Sept. 26 Birth of son Orman Eastman in Corinth, Maine
1840   Census in Corinth, Maine
1845 Dec. 2 Death of wife Cynthia Tyler
1862 January 28 Marriage to Sarah Nichols in Corinth, Maine
1887 May 22 Death in Corinth, Maine
1887 May Burial in Evergreen Cemetery, Corinth, Maine
1888 Dec. 12 Death of wife Sarah Nichols in Maine

Each of the above items has a reference to the events cited.

Version 2.0 now supports pictures in charts and reports. It also produces reports in PDF format. It has a built-in spell checker that can be used when entering text notes. LDS members will also be pleased to learn that version 2.0 now exports TempleReady files.

As much as I have written above, I still have hardly described all the features of Family Tree Legends version 2.0. For more information, look at http://www.familytreelegends.com and especially at http://www.familytreelegends.com/products.

All in all, Family Tree Legends version 2.0 is a significant improvement to an already first-class program. It is powerful and easy to use and now is maturing into a strong competitor against the established products that have been available for some years. If you are looking for your first Windows genealogy program, or if you are not happy with the one you are using, I would strongly suggest that you try the 30-day demo version of Family Tree Legends This demo is fully functional; however, it does limit the number of SmartMatches you can view for your file. Other than that, the program functions exactly the same as the retail version.

Family Tree Legends version 2.0 requires Windows 95, 98, 98 SE, ME, 2000, or XP operating system. It also requires a 166 MHz or faster processor, 20 megabytes of disk space and 32 megabytes of RAM memory. In short, it will run on most Windows computers built in the past few years. Internet access is needed only for the optional backup, SmartMatching, and Web publishing features.

Family Tree Legends has a list price of $49.95 (U.S. funds). However, Pearl Street Software currently is selling it at a discount price of $39.95. You can safely order it online via Pearl Street Software’s secure online order system. You can also order it via mail, using a credit card, check, or money order.

For more information about Family Tree Legends or to safely order it online, go to: http://www.familytreelegends.com

What Do You Think? Comments and discussion are available on this newsletter's Discussion Board at: http://www.eogn.com/discussionboard

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- (+) Preserving Old Documents Electronically

The following is a "preview" of a Plus Edition-only article:

Old documents often are fragile. Simply handling them can damage them or speed their deterioration, so frequent handling has to be avoided. This can be difficult in the case of family heirlooms since many people may want to see them, people who cannot easily travel to the location where the documents and photographs are stored.

Luckily, within the past decade technology advances have reduced many of these "problems." It is now possible to reproduce and even improve the appearance of old documents and photographs. Multiple copies are easy to make, and electronic copies can be put on CD-ROM disks, on Web sites, and even in e-mail messages. Best of all, these tasks can be done at home, using modestly-priced hardware and software. In fact, making electronic improvements and photocopies often can be done for prices that rival or beat those made with older methods.

This week I thought I would describe the process of preserving old documents and making them easily available to anyone who wishes to view them.

The preceding is a "preview" of a Plus Edition-only article. The full article is available only to Plus Edition subscribers. Click on Plus Edition for more information.

[Return to Table of Contents]


- (+) Free Program to Manage Photos on Your Website

The following is a "preview" of a Plus Edition-only article:

Do you have a Web site or plan to start one? If so, I have a handy tool for you. This week I had a chance to look at a Web-based software product that lets you manage your photos and even movies on your own website. Best of all, the program is free of charge.

This new program allows you to easily create and maintain albums of photos and includes automatic thumbnail creation, image resizing, rotation, ordering, captioning, searching, and more. Albums can have an additional level of privacy by means of read, write, and caption permissions per individual authenticated user. You can even give accounts to your friends and family and let them upload and manage their own photos on your website. This sounds like an excellent product for collaborative efforts in which cousins work together to provide online family photographs, either for the entire world to see or to be kept behind password-protected Web pages.

The preceding is a "preview" of a Plus Edition-only article. The full article is available only to Plus Edition subscribers. Click on Plus Edition for more information.

[Return to Table of Contents]


- (+) Low-Cost Replacement for Microsoft Office 2003

The following is a "preview" of a Plus Edition-only article:

This week Microsoft released the latest incarnation of Microsoft Office for Windows XP and 2000, a suite of programs including Word 2003 (a word processor), Excel 2003 (a spreadsheet), PowerPoint 2003 (a presentation program) and Outlook 2003 (a personal information manager and e-mail program that is prone to viruses). The price for this new release typically is $400 to $500, depending upon which version is purchased. To be sure, you can shop around and find a lower "street price," but it will still be above $300.

If you do not need the entire suite of programs, you can purchase Microsoft Word 2003 alone for about $225 to $275, depending on where you shop. There isn't a lot of difference between Word 2002 (the earlier version) and Word 2003. The 2003 edition adds XML compatibility and digital rights management (which sounds like a downgrade to me). I don't know what I would do with word processing documents in XML format. The digital rights management capability adds a layer of complexity that I do not want to deal with. I am told that digital rights management isn't simple and that you cannot easily disable it.

Sadly, the default file format for Word 2003 is no longer compatible with earlier versions of Word or with other word processors' versions of .DOC files. The only word processor that can read Word 2003's default format is Word 2003 for Windows 2000 and XP. It seems that Microsoft is trying to tighten its near-monopoly. To be sure, Word 2003 can save in other formats, if you remember to specify the desired format on every file that you save. I suspect that most people will forget this and therefore will encounter difficulties when trying to share files with those who do not have the latest and most expensive Word 2003.

Keep in mind that the new Office 2003 only works with Windows XP and Windows 2000. Anyone using Windows 95, 98, or ME will not be able to use this latest version.

In short, I have decided to avoid the hassle of Office 2003 and Word 2003. I am suggesting that others do likewise.

This week I will tell you how to purchase last year's Microsoft Word 2002 for less than $99.

The preceding is a "preview" of a Plus Edition-only article. The full article is available only to Plus Edition subscribers. Click on Plus Edition for more information.

[Return to Table of Contents]


- The Rolfe Papers on CD

Audrey J. Ladd has undertaken a huge task: transcribing the works of Mary Adams Rolfe onto a computer and making the papers available to genealogists on CD-ROM disks. The first of six or seven anticipated CD-ROM disks has been completed, and I had a chance to use it this week.

Audrey described her efforts this way:

Mary Adams Rolfe lived in Newburyport. She started doing research for her uncle when she was 13. He was a Harvard student and was laid up with a broken leg, so he spent the time doing family research. She never married. When she died, her niece gave the Adams and Rolfe family papers to family members and the rest to the Historical Society of Old Newbury. These were bound by family if there were enough pages, and there are now fifty volumes, some very large. There are also six huge volumes titled "Dump" where all the rest of the material was bound. Photocopying those is going to be fun!

I have been copying them page by page, transcribing them, proofing them all with the misspellings so they will be as much like reading hers as possible.

I wish we could find and borrow the missing two families so I could copy them and we would have the complete set.

This next Historical Society of Old Newbury newsletter will have an article about Mary Adams Rolfe.

Mary Adams Rolfe eventually wrote nineteen thousand pages of data from every available source. The first three thousand handwritten pages have been transcribed by Audrey and are now available on Volume One of the planned six or seven disks. In describing this monumental effort, Audrey describes the material:

[Mary Adams Rolfe] sourced all her material, but sometimes she neglected to say what the notations refer to. The pages are mostly handwritten and are rather hard to read, and there is no index or reliable pattern to the material. Thus, while valuable, [the papers are] difficult to use.

By transcribing her works onto disks I hope to achieve several things. First, to make the material available to everyone, second to preserve the originals by lessening their handling, third to make the material itself easier to use by using Microsoft Word which will allow an every word search and fourth to make a little money for the Historical Society of Old Newbury.

The papers themselves have been microfilmed, but the film version is at least as difficult to use as the originals. The microfilm images are often even more difficult to read than the originals. There is no index or order. By contrast, Audrey Ladd's version on CD is very easy to use. The records have been transcribed into Microsoft Word format and are arranged in alphabetical order by surname. Disk #1 contains the records for Atkinson though Goodwin.

I used the Volume 1 CD and found it so simple to use that I won't spend much effort describing it. The files are in Word format; opening a file on this CD is done in the same manner as opening a Word file on a floppy disk or on your hard drive. Almost all word processors, including those found on Macintosh and Linux systems, will read Word files. There is no software to install, no "viewers" and no "engines" involved. If your word processor can read Microsoft Word files, you can use this CD within seconds after opening the shipping envelope.

The data varies, but I found hundreds and hundreds of family group sheets, many in Register format or close to that format. I also found records about ships that were built, launched, or sailed from Newbury. These ships' records always included the captains' names and sometimes those of the crew. The disk also includes court records, land sales, and much, much more.

Here is a sample of one record that I copied-and-pasted from Microsoft Word:

Samuel Fogg. The Maine Dictionary says of him brot over a boy, likelier somebody’s stepson." The first mention of him in the records is 30:10:1647 at Quarterly Court at Ipswich when John Legali brings suit in behalf of Samuell Fogg his kinsman v. William Fullar of Hampton for not teaching him the trade of a locksith. He had four years longer to serve. To be bound for the remainder of his time to Isaack Cosen an expert smith of Rowley thirty shillings and costs allowed Fogg.

28:7m 1647 William Fullar of Hampton having had notice of the order of the court putting out his servant Samuell Fogg to Isaake Couzens of Rowley an expert smith to learn his trade presented his servant to this court and was then returned. He was one of the jury of Hampton Court 4:8:1653 Oct 14 1663 Oct 11 1664

Signed the petition asking for the release of Robert Pike which was presented to the General Court in May 1654 and when questioned by the investigating committee as to his reason for signing certified that he had signed the petition unadvisedly.

He was made freeman Oct 3 1654 Selectman 1655& 1663, Constable 1660. In 1663 he had two shares in the cow common. He was one of the 68 members of the church of the Church at Hampton Sept 18 1671.

He m 1st 12 Dec 1652 Ann Shaw d Roger & Anne. She died 9 Dec 1663 and he married 2nd Dec 28 1665 Mary Page d Robert & Margaret (Goodwin) Page who survived him and died March 8 1699, 1700 a 56. He died 15 Apr 1671/2. He had eight children. His daughter Mary b 1 May 1662 m 1st Newbury Nov 24 1686 George Hardy, 2nd Apr 13 169- Benj Poore. She d Aug 8 170-

Christopher Hussey of Hampton yeoman for 90L conveys to Steven Sambourne & Sam’l Fogge house and lot in Hampton except what was sold to Jno Sambourn and land adjoining Willi Fullars & Tho: Lovets 6:2m 1650. Witness Steven Bacheller, Edward Colcord and John Redman ack before court at Hampton 10: 8, 1651. (Ant 1-23)

Jno Redman of Hampton blacksmith conveyed to Sam Fogg of Hampton one share in cow common 18:11:16__. Wit Nathaniel Bacheller & Nathaniel Drake. Ack in court at Hampton 8,8:1653 (Ant 1. 114)

Samuell Fogg of Hampton releases Joseph Shaw from all demands Apr 13 1663. Wit Willi Stefield and Daniel Tilton. [Felton?] Ack Apr 13 1663 before Tho: Wiggin (Ant 4-10)

Joseph Shaw (his S mark) of Hampton planter conveyed to Samuel Fogg of Hampton 10 acres of Marsh Apr 3 1663 Witness John Barsham and Christopher Palmer. Ack & wife Elizabeth Shaw released her dower before Thomas Wiggin 13:2:1663 (Ant 5 130)

In his will dated 9 Jan 1671 and proved Oct 8 1672. He gave "unto my daughter Mary Fog one fether bed & one fether boulster & one pillow & two blankets one of them a red blanket and two payers of sheets which were her mothers"," to my daughters Mary and brass pan & three puter platters and som other puter & earthen dishes which were her mothers and these goods being prized to my daughter Mary, my son Samuel to make up the some of fifteen pounds to her when she shall come to the age of twenty one years or att her marriage which shall happen first. Inv 249:190

Samuel Fogg had children:

    1. Samuel born Dec 25 1653 m Hannah3 daughter of Capt William2 and Rebecca (Page) Marston (William1) 5 ch
    2. Joseph b 25 March 1656 died 17 April 1660
    3. John b 15 July 1658 died 21 April 1660
    4. Daniel born June 16 1660 blacksmith lived Scarborough Me until driven out by the Indians in 1690, he removed to an island near Portsmouth NH. He removed to Kittery about 1700. He married Hannah2 Libby (John1) He died in Eliot June 9 1755. 11 ch
    5. Mary b May 1 1662 m George Hardy – Benjamin Pore 3ch.
    6. Seth b Nov 28 1666 m Sarah b June 22 1669 daughter of Benjamin and Esther (Richardson) Shaw (Roger) lived Hampton. Died 6 Sept 1755. Sarah died 10 April 1756. 12 ch.
    7. James b 18 April 1668 m Mary Burren Jan 9 1695 She d Oct 14 1750 aged 80. He died June 17 1760 a 92 6 children
    8. Hannah b April 6 1671 d June 22 1680

You can see the extensive information available about this one family that I selected at random. Many families have more information than this sample.

The records of Mary Adams Rolfe are a major genealogy resource. The transcription efforts of Audrey J. Ladd also qualify as a "major genealogy resource." Thousands of genealogists with Newbury area ancestry will appreciate the efforts of both ladies.

Best of all, these CD-ROM disks are being sold at the modest price of $30.00 per disk, with all profits given to the Historical Society of Old Newbury. Disk #1, containing records for the Atkinson though Goodwin families, is available now. You can obtain more information from hson@greennet.net.

More information about the Historical Society of Old Newbury can be found at: http://www.newburyhist.com/.

What Do You Think? Comments and discussion are available on this newsletter's Discussion Board at: http://www.eogn.com/discussionboard

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- Amazon's Search Inside the Book

Amazon.com has a new feature called "Search Inside the Book" that looks interesting. Amazon.com now has an online database containing the full text of more than 120,000 books, roughly 33 million pages. You can search every word of every book, looking for books of interest. Amazon.com then makes it easy for you to order the books online.

The feature obviously works well for references to less-popular items of interest. I decided to do a search for genealogy information and was a bit surprised at the results.

I first did a search for my own last name but found far too many references to be of much use. After all, it is not all that rare a name. I narrowed it down by specifying the name and the word "Maine" since that is where most of my ancestors lived. The list of references found was still far too long. I narrowed it still further by adding a third word: "genealogy." This time the list found was nearly 400 books, including Henry David Thoreau's "A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers."

Finally, I added another word, that of the small town in which many of my ancestors lived. This time I received a pleasant surprise. To be sure, it didn't reveal any genealogy secrets. However, on page 251 of "Alice, Let's Eat" by Calvin Trillin is a reference to a church supper held in that town in 1956, quoting my late aunt's comments as she cooked at the supper. Not a great revelation, perhaps, but still a nice one.

When searching for books, the results are displayed as book titles, a bit of information about the book and then a sentence or two that contains at least one of the words referenced. Clicking on the reference will display the entire page of the book, allowing the reader to determine if the reference is what he or she is looking for. You cannot, however, turn the page to the next or to previous pages. Obviously, Amazon.com and the publishers do not want you to read the entire book online. However, you do see the entire page containing the reference. In books that contain multiple occurrences of your search terms, you can read multiple pages.

I did a search for my own name and found many, many references. For one, I share my name with a minister who is a prolific writer of religious books. He was listed hundreds of times. I then added the word "genealogy" to the search terms and found a few references that did interest me. One that surprised me was "Next: Trends for the Near Future" by Ira Matathia, which quoted some activities that I participated in a few years ago. I never knew that I had been quoted in a book about trends of the future in the online world. (Yes, I immediately ordered the book from Amazon.com.)

Amazon.com's "Search Inside the Book" feature strikes me as a great new resource. It has some genealogy value, including the capability to search for "how to" books, such as Black genealogy, Italian genealogy, and more. To be sure, only current books in Amazon.com's inventory are available for search, and then only if the publishers agreed to allow their books to be indexed. (I suspect the publishers supplied the text in electronic format.) Newer books, such as many of the books that are reviewed in this newsletter, can be searched. You won't find long out-of-print genealogy books here. The search is free of charge, and every result contains an "easy-to-click link" that takes you to Amazon.com's order page.

I suspect that Amazon.com is going to sell a lot of books as a result of this new feature. You can find more information about Amazon.com's "Search Inside the Book" feature at: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/browse/-/10197021/ref=sib_merch_gw

Late update: Just as I was about to send this week's newsletter, the Authors Guild publicly objected to this new feature, saying that Amazon.com does not have the authors' permission to place these texts online. To be sure, Amazon.com did obtain permission from the publishers. However, the Authors Guild says this is insufficient, that authors also have copyrights, and that Amazon.com cannot place these texts online without permission of each author involved. You can read more at http://importance.typepad.com/the_importance_of/2003/10/another_ny_time.html.

This should get interesting. I'd suggest that you do your searches as soon as possible.

What Do You Think? Comments and discussion are available on this newsletter's Discussion Board at: http://www.eogn.com/discussionboard

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- A Great Genealogy Page

One of the fun things about this newsletter is that I get to see a lot of genealogy pages. I enjoy seeing the results of some talented people who can do things that I never thought of. Even better, I get to see the tools that they used.

This week I had a chance to look at one such Web site that impressed me. Judy Russell has created a site that shows her interest in all her ancestral lines, including Baker, Buchanan, Cottrell, Davenport, Geissler, Gentry, Jones, Killen, Pettypool, Robertson, Shew, and Wiseman. The pages are very attractive, to say the least. She has a lot of text as well as old family photographs. She has scanned images of old marriage records, land records, and census records. She has a family calendar and a Family Message Board. She even has a blog.

Much of this Web site was created with Second Site, a great add-on used with The Master Genealogist software. (See my review of Second Site at: http://www.eogn.com/archives/news0236.htm.) However, Judy also added in a lot of other creative pages.

To see Judy Russell's excellent Web pages, look at: http://www.jgrussell.com/famtree.htm

My thanks to Betty Clay for telling me about this site.

What Do You Think? Comments and discussion are available on this newsletter's Discussion Board at: http://www.eogn.com/discussionboard

[Return to Table of Contents]


- Scottish Wills Online

More than a half million Scottish wills and testaments, ranging from 1500 to 1901, are now available online. The index is freely searchable although you do have to pay a modest fee to view the images or to obtain high-quality, full color digital images of the original records.

Of course, finding your own ancestor’s will is the ultimate thrill; but while you are at the site, you can also view the wills of some of the rich and (in)famous. In fact, you can view the following at no charge:

Rob Roy MacGregor, the outlaw who died in 1734, left an estate worth a little over £84, and bequeathed his sword, saddle, clothes and furniture to his wife Mary. His will reads: "The testament dative and Inventary of the goods gear cattle household plenishing and others which pertained to the deceast Robert Roy Campbell in Innerlochlang. Betwixt his body cloaths and heall house plenishing estimate to eighty four pound six shilling and eight pennies."

Robert Louis Stevenson, who died in 1894, left more than £32,000, equivalent to £2 million today.

Little is known about how much Robert Burns left to his wife, apart from a £15 debt that was due to him. The records reveal little about Robert Burns, the ploughman poet. He had not made a will before he died so we do not know how he wished his possessions to be disposed of after his death. His widow, Jean, was presumably able to sort out most of his affairs without recourse to the commissary court. It was only her recovery of the two outstanding debts owing to her husband for which she required legal authority. The sole purpose of this testament was to confirm Jean as her late husband’s executor, thereby enabling her to recover the debts, one of which was due from George Thomson.

Explorer David Livingstone left no will when he died in Africa in 1873. However, the archive contains a scan of a testament which consists of an inventory of the money held in his British bank accounts. His chief executor, his eldest son Thomas Steele Livingstone, living in Hamilton, signed the document confirming that he had no knowledge of the extent of his father's estate, if any, abroad. The explorer's wife, Mary Livingstone, had died in 1862 in Africa, so the estate was divided equally among their children. The total estate in Scotland and England was estimated to amount to £1,463.

The £4m project saw the team of Scottish archivists, and US digitization experts from the Genealogy Society in Utah, scan more than four million unique and fragile documents for the website.

The site allows you to search the index to Scottish Wills & Testaments from 1500-1901 and view digital images of the documents for free. To view the whole of any document as a full color electronic digital image costs £5.

The website took four years to complete and contains a total of 500,000 legal documents.

You can search for your ancestors' records as well as those of the rich and famous at: http://www.scottishdocuments.com/content/default.asp

What Do You Think? Comments and discussion are available on this newsletter's Discussion Board at: http://www.eogn.com/discussionboard

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- What Is "Second Cousin Once Removed?"

One of the terms frequently encountered when researching your family tree is "removed" cousins; for instance, "second cousin, once removed." Many people have an erroneous idea of what this means. So what is the correct definition?

First of all, let's examine the definition of cousins. It is "two people who share a common ancestor:" In fact, in order to be cousins, you must share a grandparent or someone from an even earlier generation of the family:

FIRST COUSINS share a grandparent in common.

SECOND COUSINS share a great-grandparent in common.

THIRD COUSINS share a great-great-grandparent in common.

And so on.

When the word "removed" is used to describe a cousin relationship, it indicates that the two people are from different generations. "Once removed" indicates a difference of one generation, "twice removed" indicates a difference of two generations, and so forth.

Let's compare you with your first cousin. You both share a grandparent, often two grandparents. However, your cousin's child also shares the same ancestry but at a difference of one generation. That child is "removed" from your cousin relationship by one generation. Hence, that child is your first cousin, once removed.

Likewise, the grandchild of your first cousin is your first cousin twice removed (two generations removed from being a first cousin).

Many people confuse the term "first cousin once removed" with "second cousin." The two are not the same.

Here is a chart that explains the relationships and can quickly explain your relationship to anyone else in your family, up to 10 generations away. Note that we are talking about "blood relatives," not those whose sole relationship is by marriage.

To use the chart, start with the common ancestor (CA) in the upper left corner. Move to the right until you locate yourself (child, grandchild, great-grandchild and so on). Next, go back to the common ancestor (CA) and go down the vertical line until you find your other relative's relationship to that common ancestor. Again, he or she will be a child, grandchild, great-grandchild or a later generation descendant from the same common ancestor that you share. Now, go right from your cousin's entry and down from your own entry until you locate the place where your relationships intersect. That will show you how you are related to your cousin.

CA

Common Ancestor

S

Sibling (brother or sister)

C

Child

N

Niece/Nephew

GC

Grand Child

GN

Grand Niece/Nephew

GGC

Great Grand Child

GGN

Great Grand Niece/Nephew

#C

# Cousin (1C - 1st cousin, 2C - 2nd cousin, etc.)

#R

# of times removed (1R - once removed, 2R - twice removed, etc.)

 

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

0

CA

C

GC

GGC

2 GGC

3 GGC

4 GGC

5 GGC

6 GGC

7 GGC

8 GGC

1

C

S

N

GN

GGN

2 GGN

3 GGN

4 GGN

5 GGN

6 GGN

7 GGN

2

GC

N

1C

1C 1R

1C 2R

1C 3R

1C 4R

1C 5R

1C 6R

1C 7R

1C 8R

3

GGC

GN

1C 1R

2C

2C 1R

2C 2R

2C 3R

2C 4R

2C 5R

2C 6R

2C 7R

4

2 GGC

GGN

1C 2R

2C 1R

3C

3C 1R

3C 2R

3C 3R

3C 4R

3C 5R

3C 6R

5

3 GGC

2 GGN

1C 3R

2C 2R

3C 1R

4C

4C 1R

4C 2R

4C 3R

4C 4R

4C 5R

6

4 GGC

3 GGN

1C 4R

2C 3R

3C 2R

4C 1R

5C

5C 1R

5C 2R

5C 3R

5C 4R

7

5 GGC

4 GGN

1C 5R

2C 4R

3C 3R

4C 2R

5C 1R

6C

6C 1R

6C 2R

6C 3R

8

6 GGC

5 GGN

1C 6R

2C 5R

3C 4R

4C 3R

5C 2R

6C 1R

7C

7C 1R

7C 2R

9

7 GGC

6 GGN

1C 7R

2C 6R

3C 5R

4C 4R

5C 3R

6C 2R

7C 1R

8C

8C 1R

10

8 GGC

7 GGN

1C 8R

2C 7R

3C 6R

4C 5R

5C 4R

6C 3R

7C 2R

8C 1R

9C

What Do You Think? Comments and discussion are available on this newsletter's Discussion Board at: http://www.eogn.com/discussionboard

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- The Boston Post Road

The Boston Post Road once was a series of Indian trails. It became North America's first official mail route in 1673 when a monthly postal service was initiated between New York and Boston. Some of the roads traveled were true "roads" at that time, while some places provided merely a path through the woods, sometimes with hostile Indians along the way.

Heading from its southern end, the road connected New York to New Haven, where it split in two; one artery went east along the coast through Rhode Island and the other north to Hartford, Connecticut, where it again split east and north.

The New York Times has an interesting story about this route, including an account of a modern-day traveler who undertook the same route. If your ancestors lived near the Boston Post Road, you might be interested in this article at: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/10/24/automobiles/24POST.html?ex=1067659200&en=71acea79ba848abd&ei=5062&partner=GOOGLE

I didn't have any ancestors along this road, as far as I know. However, today I live about 200 yards from the Boston Post Road. I can testify that it has changed a bit since 1673.

What Do You Think? Comments and discussion are available on this newsletter's Discussion Board at: http://www.eogn.com/discussionboard

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- Tombstones That Look Like Logs

Let's face it. Genealogists spend a lot of time in cemeteries. Those who visit cemeteries in the Midwest and western states often find tombstones that look like logs or tree stumps. Some simpler designs look like regular tombstones but with a circular design on them with a log, a dove, an axe, maul, and wedge, and the inscription, "Dum Tacet Clamat" ("Though silent, he speaks"). Most of these tombstones were placed there in the late nineteenth or early twentieth century.

What are these unique legacies left behind? What is the significance of the logs or tree stumps?

In 1883, a man by the name of Joseph Cullen Root organized a fraternal society in Omaha, Nebraska, called "Modern Woodmen of America". As in many fraternal organizations of time, one of the benefits of being a member was that upon death, the other members would pass around a hat and donate money to the widow. Membership was limited to white males older than 18 years of age. Later, when passing around the hat became more frequent and costly, Root decided to sell life insurance to members. Modern Woodmen of America became a fraternal benefit society.

Later, a women's auxiliary started up, called "Royal Neighbors of America." Both the male and female organizations grew steadily, and in five years, Modern Woodmen had a total membership of twenty-four thousand.

In 1899, several members had a "falling out" with the leaders of the society and separated to form a new society under the leadership of Fred A. Falkenburg, which they named "Woodmen of the World". Shortly after, tensions were high in the new organization, and Falkenburg moved to Denver to form, "Woodmen of the World, Pacific Jurisdiction". Today, the three societies remain as insurance companies. Woodmen of the World created women's auxiliaries called "Woodmen Circle" and "Supreme Forest Woodmen," while the Pacific Jurisdiction created an auxiliary called "Neighbors of Woodcraft", which still exists as an insurance company in Portland, Oregon.

Up until 1935, when a member died, the society would donate $100.00 towards the burial expenses if the surviving family allowed the society's emblem and/or wording to appear on the stone. These are the aforementioned designs that appear on the deceased members’ gravestones.

You can find numerous pictures of these tombstones on the Web, including at:

http://www.rootsweb.com/~srgp/flaghold/flag081.htm

http://homepages.rootsweb.com/~rocky/Franklin_Cemeteries/greenlawn/wow.htm

http://www.courses.rochester.edu/homerin/REL167/field_reports/stothers/stothers.html

http://www.arches.uga.edu/~rac/beardin.html

http://www.austinexplorer.com/Cemeteries/WilliamsonCounty/RoundRockCemetery/

http://okielegacy.org/journal/Vol5/OHTHV5-19.htm

http://photoweb.lodestone.org/folder/719/en (click on the images to see a larger version)

The most ornate one I could find is at http://darktreasures.com/Graveyards/FavoriteTombStones.htm (look at the bottom picture, click on it to see a larger image)

What Do You Think? Comments and discussion are available on this newsletter's Discussion Board at: http://www.eogn.com/discussionboard

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- How to Read Past Newsletters

Many newsletter readers apparently are unaware that you can easily find past Standard Edition articles. You can search by any word or phrase and, within seconds, find every reference to those words in the past seven-plus years of this e-newsletter. You can find genealogy software reviews, articles about Web sites, news from past conferences, and more. You can even read about products and companies that no longer exist.

To easily search through the archives of this publication, go to http://www.eogn.com and click on "Search Past Newsletters."

What Do You Think? Comments and discussion are available on this newsletter's Discussion Board at: http://www.eogn.com/discussionboard

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- The Perfect Space Storm of 1859

A large solar ejection this week had some effect on earth. High frequency radio communications were affected, among some other minor inconveniences. While large, this week's solar flare-up pales in comparison to one our ancestors may have seen in 1859.

One hundred forty-four years ago, many of Earth's inhabitants realized something momentous had just occurred. Within hours, telegraph wires in both the United States and Europe spontaneously shorted out, causing numerous fires. Also, the Northern Lights were seen as far south as Rome, Havana, and Hawaii. Compasses recorded inaccurate readings as even the earth's magnetic field was disturbed. Newspapers of the time wrote about it for days afterwards. Astronomer Richard Carrington in England focused his telescope on the Sun and saw a bright flash on the projected image that day, thereby being the first human to see a solar flare.

You can read a brief article about the 1859 solar storm on NASA's Web site at: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/releases/2003/140.cfm

What Do You Think? Comments and discussion are available on this newsletter's Discussion Board at: http://www.eogn.com/discussionboard

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- Suitable Attire for the Genealogist

Getting dressed for a trip to the local courthouse, library, or archives? You also want to have several high-tech devices with you, right? Let's see. There is the laptop, the PDA, the digital camera (for taking high-resolution pictures of documents) and perhaps even a pocket scanner. Don't forget the cell phone, either. You never know when you might need to make or receive a call. A Walkman and headphones helps make the time spent more pleasant.

Of course, you can stuff all this into a briefcase or book bag, but what about when you are "in the stacks?" Carrying a briefcase with you every moment is awkward, to say the least. Of course, if you leave the briefcase with all the high-tech goodies back in the reading room, you will have some security concerns. More than one laptop has "walked out" of a library without the owner's permission!

Cheer up! There is a solution for you. You can carry all those devices (and more) in a new combination vest and jacket with zip-off sleeves. It has places for everything. Best of all, you don't have to have exposed dangling wires. This jacket has built-in "tunnels" for the wiring. The concealed wires are referred to as a "Personal Area Network," or PAN. If you carry a Walkman-type music device, it even has tiny pockets for the "earbuds" sewn into the collar. Those same pockets can also be used for any of the hands-free microphone/earpieces used on cellular telephones.

The SCOTTeVEST, or SeV, was invented by Scott Jordan, a lawyer who went through a career change to become a high-tech clothing designer. He formed Technology Enabled Clothing, LLC. Jordan apparently loves high-tech gadgets but didn't want to look like a geek by wearing an electrician's toolbelt. Quoting from the SCOTTeVEST Web site:

Now, it’s easy to connect cell phones and music players to PDAs, power sources, and/or listening devices, such as earbuds and headphones. In addition to connectivity, special pockets are designed to accommodate digital cameras, portable keyboards, GPS devices, small laptop computers, two-way radios, bottled water, airplane tickets, magazines, wallets, keys, and much more. In cities and areas requiring hands-free devices while driving, the PAN is the ideal solution.

The SCOTTeVEST speeds up the process of going through airport security. With all your devices stowed in your SeV, just take it off and put it through the x-ray machine. No need to take things off your belt, out of your pants pockets etc. And, with the one carry-on rule, your SeV effectively doubles your storage capacity - you can even fit a laptop in the back pocket!

This should work for the gadget-carrying genealogist. It also works for undercover police officers. They find that it is possible to carry badges, walkie-talkies, firearms, handcuffs, and more, and yet still blend into a crowd. Undercover police officers reportedly are snapping these things up.

The SCOTTeVEST is available in several versions, including leather, MicroFiber, FineTex (similar to Gore-Tex) and fleece. It isn't cheap: Prices vary from $129 (fleece) to $399 (leather).

You can read more about the SCOTTeVEST http://www.scottevest.com/

Hey, where's that Christmas "Want List" that I started?

What Do You Think? Comments and discussion are available on this newsletter's Discussion Board at: http://www.eogn.com/discussionboard

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- Future Photo Album

A modern mother is explaining to her little girl about pictures in the family photo album. "This is the geneticist with your surrogate mother, and here's your sperm donor and your father's clone. This is me holding you when you were just a frozen embryo. The lady with the very troubled look on her face is your aunt -- she's the family genealogist."

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The PR Budget for this newsletter is $0.00. I rely upon "word of mouse" advertising in which you recommend this newsletter to your friends. This newsletter is a private project of mine, and I have a zero budget for a publicity campaign to get more readers.

In each issue, I try to offer you useful, interesting and sometimes amusing information to help you with your genealogy efforts. Can you take a minute to help me out in return? If you think this newsletter is a worthwhile read, please tell your friends. Better yet, suggest they can read the Standard Edition or subscribe to the Plus Edition at http://www.eogn.com.

Thanks.


Are you interested in the articles in this newsletter? Would you like to learn more or ask questions or make comments about these articles? Join this newsletter’s online Discussion Board at http://www.eogn.com/discussionboard.

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COPYRIGHTS and Other Legal Things:

The contents of this newsletter are copyright by Richard W. Eastman with the following exception:

Many of the articles published in these newsletters contain quotes or references from others, especially from other Web sites, software user’s manuals, press releases and other public announcements. Any words in this newsletter attributed to another person or organization remain the copyrighted materials of the original author(s).

This document is provided for informational purposes only. The information contained in this document represents the views of Richard W. Eastman with one exception: words written by other authors and republished herein are the views solely of those authors. All information provided in this document is provided "as is" without warranty of any kind, either express or implied. The reader assumes the entire risk as to the accuracy and the use of this document.

You are hereby granted rights, unless otherwise specified, to re-distribute articles from this newsletter to other parties provided:

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Also, please include the following statement with any articles you re-distribute:

The following article is from Eastman’s Online Genealogy Newsletter and is copyright 2003 by Richard W. Eastman. It is re-published here with the permission of the author. Information about the newsletter is available at http://www.eogn.com.

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Permission to use the words in this document for commercial purposes usually is granted. However, commercial use requires advance authorization.

Thank you for your cooperation.

ABOUT SPAM FILTERS:

Be aware that the biggest problem faced when sending e-mail newsletters is spam filters in e-mail servers. Although the problem plagues many, many newsletters and other types of perfectly legitimate email, this newsletter seems to be particularly susceptible. It is quite long, and contains numerous examples of the kinds of things that spam blacklists, in their infinite wisdom, have deemed to be "spam like." Therefore, numerous email servers will delete this newsletter under the assumption that it is spam.

If you all of a sudden stop receiving your copy of the newsletter (and this happens more than you might think), don't just assume I skipped an issue or there's something wrong with the newsletter's distribution. I rarely skip an issue without noting that in advance. If you stop receiving the newsletter, chances are that it's not a problem with your subscription; it's a problem with your mail server or your spam filter. That is the number one cause of newsletter subscription problems.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR:

Dick Eastman is a frequent presenter at major genealogy conferences. He has published articles in Genealogical Computing and Family Chronicle magazines and for a number of Web sites. He was an advisor to PBS' Ancestry series and appeared as a guest in one of the episodes. He serves on the Advisory Board of the New England Historic Genealogical Society and is a past Director of GENTECH and of the New England Computer Genealogists. Dick is the author of YOUR ROOTS: Total Genealogy Planning On Your Computer published by Ziff-Davis Press. He can be reached at: Richard@eastman.net. Due to the volume of e-mail received, he is unable to answer every e-mail message received.

If you have questions or comments about the article in this newsletter, go to this newsletter's Discussion Board at http://www.eogn.com/discussionboard. Post your message there. You will receive then assistance from Dick Eastman or from a number of other people.

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